Wednesday, May 2, 2012

Constitution of the United Federation of Planets...So far.


Not done by a long shot…

Basic Tenets

Executive
I.                   Title: President of the United Federation of Planets
II.                Term:
A.                5 standard years; or
B.                 Removal by constructive vote of no confidence
C.                 Limited by two term maximum
III.             Method of Selection: Popular Election
IV.             Eligibility Requirements:
A.                Must be a natural-born citizen of UFP
B.                 Must have been a resident of UFP for at least 15 standard years or local equivalent
C.                 Must have lived for at least 35 standard years or local equivalent
V.                Powers:
A.                Appoints cabinet of department secretaries and agency heads:
1.                  Upon nomination by the president, cabinet members must be approved by a simple majority of the Federation Council;
2.                  Cabinet members serve at pleasure of the president and must carry out policies of executive and legislative branches, subject to judicial review;
3.                  The president reserves the right to terminate the service of cabinet members;
4.                  Cabinet members may be removed by a two-thirds (⅔) majority of the Federation Council;
5.                  Standing cabinet departments are to include:
a.                   A Department of External Affairs
b.                  A Department of Economics
c.                   A Department of the Armed Forces
d.                  A Department of Internal Affairs
e.                   A Department of Energy
f.                   A Department of Agriculture
g.                  A Department of Federation Security
h.                  A Department of Education
i.                    A Department of Health
j.                    A Department of Justice
k.                  A Department of Labor
l.                    A Department of Commerce
m.                A Department of Housing and Civic Developement
B.                 Acts as titular head of state, serving as the ultimate representative of UFP in all federal matters foreign and domestic;
C.                 As Commander-in-Chief of the military the Federation President:
1.                  Must ask the Federation Congress for declarations of war against foreign powers, interests, and factions, and must abide by those decisions of the Federation Congress on the matter in question;
2.                  Acts as supreme power in coordinating military efforts against foreign powers, interests, and factions;
3.                  May declare a state of heightened emergency preparedness and readiness, so long as such a state of emergency does not infringe the rights of any peoples or group of peoples that:
a.                   are citizens of the UFP;
b.                  reside within the UFP;
c.                   are protected by interstellar treaties in which the UFP is engaged;
d.                  are protected by the guarantees and rights the UFP provides all cognizant peoples
D.                Negotiates international treaties with foreign powers, interests, and factions, and treaties with internal powers, interests, and factions, which must be ratified by Federation Council;
E.                 May grant pardons, reprieves or commutations of sentences of convicted criminals in cases of federal crimes only;
1.                  A simple majority of Supreme Judicial Court judges must concur; and;
2.                  Such an order will be considered to have the force of a Supreme Judicial Court ruling, overturning any previous rulings to the contrary;
3.                  Does not include cases of impeachment or any crimes or any alleged crimes that may have led to impeachment;
F.                  Issues Executive Orders, directives that have force of law, for:
1.                  Establishing new programs, offices, or commissions to promote or carry out the President’s political agenda;
2.                  Declaring when the federal workforce will observe holidays;
3.                  Creating policies that affect how legislation passed by Congress is to be carried out or enforced but not the content of the legislation in question;
a.                   Such executive orders must fall within the limits set out by the legislation in question;
b.                  Individual Executive Orders may be overturned or modified by Congressional legislation.
c.                   Executive Orders may be challenged in Constitutional Court if they are perceived to violate the Constitution or conflict with existing law.
d.                  Executive Orders may not supplant any law except if implementation of a Federal constitutional matter is addressed, in which case:
(1)               A simple majority of Supreme Constitutional Court justices must concur; and
(2)               Such an order will be considered to have the force of a Supreme Constitutional Court ruling, overturning any previous laws to the contrary.
G.                Vetoes legislation passed by Federation Congress
1.                  Presidential veto can be overridden by a ⅔ majority vote of both houses;
VI.             Removal: Constructive Vote of No Confidence
A.                A motion recommending the removal of the Federation President must pass the Federation Assembly by at least a two-thirds (⅔) majority vote;
B.                 Concurrent with the motion in the Federation Assembly recommending the removal of the Federation President, a two-thirds (⅔) majority of the Federation Council must agree on the selection of a prospective successor to the Federation President to be removed.

Legislative
VII.          Title: Congress of the United Federation of Planets
The legislative branch of the United Federation of Planets is comprised of two chambers of Congress: the Federation Council and the Federation Assembly. Legislation must pass both houses before it is presented to the President to be signed into law.
A.                Council of the Federation
1.                  Sittings of the Federation Council shall be public;
2.                  Presiding officer is President Councilor, elected by simple majority of Councilors at beginning of each session;
3.                  Assisting President Councilor are the First, Second, and Third Vice-President Councilors, elected by simple majority of Councilors at beginning of each session;
4.                  The President and Vice-President Councilors shall form the Presidium of the Federation Council, and shall meet as a group at least once a week during sessions;
5.                  The Federation Council shall be comprised of one Councilor from each sector;
6.                  Eligibility Requirements:
a.                   Must have been citizen of UFP or area currently under UFP jurisdiction for at least 10 standard years or local equivalent
b.                  Must have been resident of sector to be represented for at least 6 standard years or local equivalent
c.                   Must have lived for at least 25 standard years or local equivalent
7.                  Councilors shall be directly elected by citizens of UFP who have been residents of the sector to be represented for at least one standard year;
8.                  Councilors serve six-year terms, with no limit on the number of terms they may serve;
9.                  For election purposes, Councilors are divided into two classes; one class stands for election every three years. This ensures that there are always experienced legislators serving in Congress;
10.              Vacancies in the Council are filled by appointment by the vote of simple majority of members of the Assembly of the Federation from UFP member worlds within the sector where vacancy exists;
B.                 Assembly of the Federation
1.                  Sittings of the Federation Assembly shall be public;
2.                  Presiding officer is President Delegate, elected by simple majority of Delegates at beginning of each session
3.                  Assisting President Delegate are the First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth  Vice-President Delegates, elected by simple majority of Delegates at beginning of each session
4.                  The President and Vice-President Delegates shall form the Presidium of the Federation Assembly, and shall meet as a group at least once a week during sessions.
5.                  The Federation Assembly shall be comprised of one Delegate from each member world.
6.                  Eligibility Requirements:
a.                   Must have been citizen of UFP or area currently under UFP jurisdiction for at least for at least 5 standard years or local equivalent
b.                  Must have been resident of member world for at least 3 standard years or local equivalent
c.                   Must have lived for at least 20 standard years or local equivalent
7.                  Direct Election by citizens of UFP who are lawful residents of member world;
8.                  Delegates serve three-year terms, with no limit on the number of terms they may serve;
9.                  Vacancies in the Assembly are filled by appointment by chief executive of member world where vacancy exists with vote of ⅔ majority of members of each house of the legislature of same member world
C.                 Powers of Federation Congress:
1.                  Upon the request of the Federation President, the Federation Congress may declare war upon foreign powers, interests, and factions, and decisions of the Federation Congress on the matter in question are binding

Judicial
VIII.       Judiciary
A.                Supreme Constitutional Court of the Federation
1.                  Justices
a.                   Election
(1)               The term of a justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall be ten years;
(2)               Three justices of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall be categorized as Class I, and six justices of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall be categorized as Class II;
(3)               Class I justices shall be recommended by relevant committee of Federation Council and ratified by simple majority of that body;
(4)               Upon the vacation of the position of a Class I justice, the process repeats itself, with justice recommended by relevant committee of Federation Council and ratified by simple majority of that body;
(5)               Class II justices shall be recommended by relevant committee of Federation Assembly and ratified by simple majority of that body;
(6)               Upon the vacation of the position of a Class II justice, the process repeats itself, with justice recommended by relevant committee of Federation Assembly and ratified by simple majority of that body;
b.                  Eligibility Requirements:
(1)               Must be a natural-born citizen of UFP
(2)               Must have been a resident of UFP for at least 15 standard years or local equivalent
(3)               Must have lived for at least 35 standard years or local equivalent;
(4)               Must not reside in same sector as any other justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court;
(5)               Former justices who have served a full term in either the Supreme Constitutional Court or the Supreme Judicial Court shall not be eligible to serve as a justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court;
(6)               Once a justice has served a full term, they shall not be eligible to serve as a justice of either the Supreme Constitutional Court or the Supreme Judicial Court;
2.                  Powers
a.                   The Supreme Constitutional Court shall have the final jurisdiction to rule on whether legislation, appointments, treaties, and all practices civil and criminal are in violation of this constitution.
b.                  [DEFINITELY more to come here…]
B.                 Supreme Judicial Court of the Federation
3.                  Justices
c.                   Election
(7)               The term of a justice of the Supreme Judicial Court shall be ten years;
(8)               Three justices of the Supreme Judicial Court shall be categorized as Class I, and six justices of the Supreme Judicial Court shall be categorized as Class II;
(9)               Class I justices shall be recommended by relevant committee of Federation Council and ratified by simple majority of that body;
(10)           Upon the vacation of the position of a Class I justice, the process repeats itself, with justice recommended by relevant committee of Federation Council and ratified by simple majority of that body;
(11)           Class II justices shall be recommended by relevant committee of Federation Assembly and ratified by simple majority of that body;
(12)           Upon the vacation of the position of a Class II justice, the process repeats itself, with justice recommended by relevant committee of Federation Assembly and ratified by simple majority of that body;
d.                  Eligibility Requirements:
(1)               Must be a natural-born citizen of UFP
(2)               Must have been a resident of UFP for at least 15 standard years or local equivalent
(3)               Must have lived for at least 35 standard years or local equivalent;
(4)               Must not reside in same sector as any other justice of the Supreme Judicial Court;
(5)               Former justices who have served a full term in either the Supreme Judicial Court or the Supreme Constitutional Court shall not be eligible to serve as a justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court;
(6)               Once a justice has served a full term, they shall not be eligible to serve as a justice of either the Supreme Judicial Court or the Supreme Constitutional Court;
4.                  Powers
a.                   The Supreme Judicial Court shall have the final jurisdiction to rule on whether individuals and institutions are in violation of the laws of the United Federation of Planets.
b.      [DEFINITELY more to come here…]
C.                 Lower Judges
D.                Extraordinary Courts Banned
1.      No extraordinary courts shall be created, even if there is any perceived threat to any possible aspect of the security of the UFP, its sectors, member worlds, colonies, territories independently operating facilities

The Constitution Itself

Portions in red are under review.

General Provisions
I.                   United Federation of Planets
The United Federation of Planets is one, sovereign, democratic state founded on the following values:
a.                   Sophant dignity, the achievement of equality and the advancement of sophant rights and freedoms.
b.                  Nondiscrimination.
c.                   Supremacy of the constitution and the rule of law.
d.                  Universal adult suffrage, a common roll of Federation voters, regular direct elections and a non-party system of democratic government, to ensure accountability, responsiveness and openness.
II.                Supremacy of Constitution
This Constitution is the supreme law of the Federation; law or conduct inconsistent with it is invalid, and the obligations imposed by it must be fulfilled.
III.             Citizenship
1.                  Throughout the Federation, there is a common interplanetary citizenship.
2.                  All citizens are
a.                   equally entitled to the rights, privileges and benefits of citizenship; and
b.                  equally subject to the duties and responsibilities of citizenship.
3.                  Federation legislation must provide for the acquisition, loss and restoration of citizenship.
4.                  Federation anthem
[incomplete]
5.                  Federation motto
The Federation Motto shall be the Latin phrase “Ut Astrum quod Ut Posterus”, meaning “To the Stars and To the Future”.
6.                  Federation seal
[incomplete]
7.                  Federation flag
The Flag of the United Federation of Planets is navy blue background, with the seal of the Federation above the motto of the Federation in platinum colored text, as illustrated in Schedule 1.
8.                  Languages
1.                  The official language of the Federation is to be Earth Basic, formerly known as American English, which is to be renamed Federation Standard after enactment of this Constitution.
2.                  The Federation must take practical and positive measures to elevate the status and advance the use of the historically diminished indigenous languages of member worlds.
3.                   
a.                   The federation government and member governments may use any particular official languages for the purposes of government, taking into account usage, practicality, regional circumstances and the balance of the needs and preferences of the population as a whole or in the member worlds concerned; but the national government and each member government must use at least one official language.
b.                  Sub-global regions must take into account the language usage and preferences of their residents.
4.                  The federation government and member governments, by legislative and other measures, must regulate and monitor their use of official languages. Without detracting from the provisions of subsection (2), all official languages must enjoy parity of esteem and must be treated equitably.
5.                  An Interplanetary Language Board established by national legislation must ­
a.                   promote, and create conditions for, the development and use of
                                                                                i.            all official spoken languages;
                                                                              ii.            all official nonverbal languages; and
                                                                            iii.            all official electronic conversational languages; and
b.                  promote and ensure respect for ­
                                                                                i.            all languages commonly used by communities in the Federation; and
                                                                              ii.            languages used for religious purposes in the Federation.

Declaration of Rights
I.                   Rights
1.                  This Declaration of Rights is a cornerstone of democracy in the United Federation of Planets. It enshrines the rights of all sophant species in our state and affirms the democratic values of sophant dignity, equality and freedom.
2.                  The state must respect, protect, promote and fulfill the rights in the Bill of Rights.
II.                Application
1.                  The Bill of Rights applies to all law, and binds the legislature, the executive, the judiciary and all organs of state.
2.                  A provision of the Bill of Rights binds a natural or a juristic person if, and to the extent that, it is applicable, taking into account the nature of the right and the nature of any duty imposed by the right.
3.                  When applying a provision of the Bill of Rights to a natural or juristic person in terms of subsection (2), a court ­
a.                   in order to give effect to a right in the Bill, must apply, or if necessary develop, the common law to the extent that legislation does not give effect to that right; and
b.                  may develop rules of the common law to limit the right, .
4.                  A juristic person is entitled to the rights in the Bill of Rights to the extent required by the nature of the rights and the nature of that juristic person.
III.             Equality
1.                  Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law.
2.                  Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and freedoms. To promote the achievement of equality, there may be taken legislative and other measures designed to protect or advance beings, or categories of beings, disadvantaged by unfair discrimination.
3.                  Neither the state, nor the individual, nor any other entity may unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against any sophant on one or more grounds, including race, gender, sex, gestation, union or marital status, familial or romantic or platonic or business relationship status, institutional bias, ethnic or social origin, color, sexual orientation or identity, personal preferences, lifestyle, age, ability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language, homeworld, species, background, and birth.
a.                   However, organized religions may choose not to admit individuals based on the qualifications in Article (III), Section (3).
                                                                                i.            Nonetheless, organized religions may not actively pursue a discriminatory agenda.
                                                                              ii.            No organized religion may be compelled to admit any individual.
4.                  No person may unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds in terms of subsection (3). Federation legislation must be enacted to prevent or prohibit unfair discrimination.1
5.                  Discrimination on one or more of the grounds listed in subsection (3) is unfair unless it is established that the discrimination is fair.
IV.             Sophant Dignity
Everyone has inherent dignity and the right to have their dignity respected and protected.
V.                Life
Everyone has the right to life. The death penalty is hereby abolished.
VI.             Freedom and security of the person
1.                  Everyone has the right to freedom and security of the person, which includes the right
a.                   not to be deprived of freedom arbitrarily or without just cause;
b.                  not to be detained without trial;
c.                   to be free from all forms of violence from either public or private sources;
d.                  not to be tortured in any way; and
e.                   not to be treated or punished in a cruel, unusual or degrading way.
2.                  Everyone has the right to bodily and psychological integrity, which includes the right
a.                   to make decisions concerning reproduction;
b.                  to security in and control over their body; and
c.                   not to be subjected to medical or scientific experiments without their informed consent.
VII.          Slavery, servitude and forced labor
No one may be subjected to slavery, servitude or forced labor, with the exception of certified Dominant/submissive relationships as mentioned in Article (X), Section (1), paragraph (a).
VIII.       Privacy
Everyone has the right to privacy, which includes the right not to have­
a.                   their person or home searched;
b.                  their property searched;
c.                   their possessions seized; or
d.                  the privacy of their communications infringed.
IX.             Freedom of religion, belief and opinion
1.                  Everyone has the right to freedom of conscience, religion, thought, belief and opinion.
2.                  Religious observances may not be conducted by:
a.                   the Federation, its constituent bodies, or member worlds or Federation; or
b.                  any institution under Federation jurisdiction that in any way benefits from the Federation, its constituent bodies, or member worlds.
3.                  There shall be no establishment religion of any kind by the Federation, its constituent bodies, or member worlds.
4.                  Legislation recognizing marriages and personal, planetary, tribal or family law:
a.                   This section does not prevent legislation recognizing ­
                                                                                i.            marriages concluded under any tradition, or a system of religious, personal, planetary, tribal or family law; or
                                                                              ii.            systems of personal, planetary, tribal or family law under any tradition, or adhered to by persons professing a particular religion.
b.                  Recognition in terms of paragraph (a) must be consistent with this article and the other provisions of the Constitution.
X.                Freedom of Union: Every relationship of two or more adult sophant beings of sound mind having reached majority age shall have the right to be fully recognized by the Federation in a Union with full legal rights.
1.                  This right to union shall not be denied or abridged on account of any of the terms mentioned in Article (III), Section (3);
a.                   It is reiterated that this includes permanent Bondage / Dominance / Sadism / Masochism (BDSM) relationships, the particulars of which shall be laid out in a Dominant / submissive contract to be integrated into the contract under terms of Article (X), Section (2).
b.                  It is reiterated that this includes incestuous relationships.
                                                                                i.            Those in incestuous relationships shall make every attempt to provide that there is no offspring with ill effects directly attributable to said relationship.
c.                   It is reiterated that this includes relationships between sophants of all genders, sexes, sexual orientations and/or identities.
d.                  It is reiterated that this includes relationships between sophants of all races, ethnicities, species, and homeworlds
e.                   It is reiterated that this includes relationships between more than two sophants.
2.                  The terms, benefits, sacrifices, shared property, custody, rights, responsibilities, and other particulars of said unions shall be legally recognized under contract by all parties involved.
3.                  Said union is free to marry under terms of Article (IX), Section (3), paragraph (a), subsection (i) in any religion that recognizes that union.
a.                   A religion unwilling to recognize said union shall not be compelled to do so.
XI.             Freedom of expression
1.                  Everyone has the right to freedom of expression, which includes ­
a.                   freedom of the press and other media;
b.                  freedom to receive or impart information or ideas;
c.                   freedom of artistic creativity; and
d.                  academic freedom and freedom of scientific research.
2.                  The right in subsection (1) does not extend to ­
a.                   propaganda for war;
b.                  incitement of imminent violence; or
c.                   advocacy of hatred that is based the grounds mentioned in section (9) subsection (3), and that constitutes incitement to cause harm.
XII.          Assembly, demonstration, picket and petition
Everyone has the right, peacefully and unarmed, to assemble, to demonstrate, to picket and to present petitions.
XIII.       Freedom of association
Everyone has the right to freedom of association.
XIV.       Political rights
1.                  Every citizen is free to make political choices, which includes the right ­
a.                   to form a political party;
b.                  to participate in the activities of, or recruit members for, a political party; and
c.                   to campaign for a political party or cause.
2.                  Every citizen has the right to free, fair and regular elections for any legislative body established in terms of the Constitution.
3.                  Every adult citizen has the right ­
a.                   to vote in elections for any legislative body established in terms of the Constitution, and to do so in secret; and
b.                  to stand for public office and, if elected, to hold office, .
XV.          Citizenship
No citizen may be deprived of citizenship.
XVI.       Freedom of movement and residence
1.                  Everyone has the right to freedom of movement.
2.                  Everyone has the right to leave the Federation.
3.                  Every citizen has the right to enter, to remain in and to reside anywhere in, the Federation.
4.                  Every citizen has the right to an identification chip.
XVII.    Freedom of trade, occupation and profession
Every citizen has the right to choose their vocation, occupation or profession freely. The practice of a vocation, occupation or profession may be regulated by law.
XVIII. Labor relations
XIX.       Environment
Everyone has the right
a.                   to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being; and
b.                  to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures that ­
                                                        i.            prevent pollution and ecological degradation;
                                                      ii.            promote conservation; and
                                                    iii.            secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.
XX.          Property
1.                  No one may be deprived of property except in terms of law of general application, and no law may permit arbitrary deprivation of property.
2.                  Property may be expropriated only in terms of law of general application
a.                   for a public purpose or in the public interest; and
XXI.       Housing
1.                  Everyone has the right to have access to free, safe and adequate housing.
2.                  The state must take reasonable legislative and other measures to achieve the realization of this right.
3.                  No one may be evicted from their home, or have their home demolished, without an order of court made after considering all the relevant circumstances. No legislation may permit arbitrary evictions.
XXII.    Health care, food, water and housing
1.                  Everyone has the right to have access to
a.                   health care services, including reproductive health care;
b.                  sufficient food and water; and
c.                   sufficient housing.
2.                  The state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realization of each of these rights.
3.                  No one may be refused medical treatment.
XXIII. Minors
1.                  Definition ­
a.                   Anyone having reached an emotional age equivalent for their species of a human 18 earth years of age is to be considered of majority age; while
b.                  anyone not having reached an emotional age equivalent for their species of a human 18 earth years of age is to be considered of minority age, or, a minor.
2.                  Every minor has the right ­
a.                   to a name and Federation citizenship from birth;
b.                  to family care or parental care, or to appropriate alternative care when removed from the family environment;
c.                   to basic nutrition, shelter, basic health care services and social services;
d.                  to be protected from maltreatment, neglect, abuse or degradation;
e.                   to be protected from exploitative labor practices;
f.                   not to be required or permitted to perform work or provide services that
                                                                                i.            are inappropriate for a person of that minor’s emotional age; or
                                                                              ii.            place at risk the minor’s well-being, education, physical or mental health or spiritual, moral or social development;
g.                  not to be detained except as a measure of last resort, in which case, in addition to the rights a minor enjoys under sections 12 and 35, the minor may be detained only for the shortest appropriate period of time, and has the right to be ­
                                                                                i.            kept separately from detained persons of majority age; and
                                                                              ii.            treated in a manner, and kept in conditions, that take account of the minor’s age;
h.                  to have a legal practitioner assigned to the minor by the state, and at state expense, in civil proceedings affecting the minor, if substantial injustice would otherwise result; and
i.                    not to be used directly or indirectly in armed conflict, and to be protected in times of armed conflict.
3.                  A minor’s best interests are of paramount importance in every matter concerning the minor.
XXIV. Education
1.                  Everyone has the right
a.                   to a basic education, including adult basic education; and
b.                  to further education, which the state, through reasonable measures, must make progressively available and accessible.
2.                  Everyone has the right to receive education in the official language or languages of their choice in public educational institutions where that education is reasonably practicable. In order to ensure the effective access to, and implementation of, this right, the state must consider all reasonable educational alternatives, including single medium institutions, taking into account ­
a.                   equity;
b.                  practicability; and
c.                   the need to redress the results of past racially discriminatory laws and practices.
3.                  Everyone has the right to establish and maintain, independent educational institutions that ­
a.                   are registered with the state; and
b.                  maintain standards that are not inferior to standards at comparable public educational institutions.
XXV.    Language and culture
Everyone has the right to use the language and to participate in the cultural life of their choice, but no one exercising these rights may do so in a manner inconsistent with any provision of the Bill of Rights.
XXVI. Cultural, religious and linguistic communities
1.                  Persons belonging to a cultural, religious or linguistic community may not be denied the right, with other members of that community
a.                   to enjoy their culture, practice their religion and use their language; and
b.                  to form, join and maintain cultural, religious and linguistic associations and other organs of civil society.
2.                  The rights in subsection (1) may not be exercised in a manner inconsistent with any provision of the Bill of Rights.
XXVII.                      Access to information2
1.                  Everyone has the right of access to ­
a.                   any information held by the state; and
b.                  any information that is held by another person and that is required for the exercise or protection of any rights.
2.                  Federation legislation must be enacted to give effect to this right, and may provide for reasonable measures to alleviate the administrative burden on the state.
XXVIII.                   Just administrative action3
1.                  Everyone has the right to administrative action that is lawful, reasonable and procedurally fair.
2.                  Everyone whose rights have been adversely affected by administrative action has the right to be given written reasons.
3.                  Federation legislation must be enacted to give effect to these rights, and must
a.                   provide for the review of administrative action by a court or, where appropriate, an independent and impartial tribunal;
b.                  impose a duty on the state to give effect to the rights in subsections (1) and (2); and
c.                   promote an efficient administration.
XXIX. Access to courts
1.                  Everyone has the right to have any dispute that can be resolved by the application of law decided in a fair public hearing before a court or, where appropriate, another independent and impartial tribunal or forum.
XXX.    Arrested, detained and accused persons
1.                  Everyone who is arrested for allegedly committing an offence has the right ­
a.                   to remain silent;
b.                  to be informed promptly ­
                                                                                i.            of the right to remain silent; and
                                                                              ii.            of the consequences of not remaining silent;
c.                   not to be compelled to make any confession or admission that could be used in evidence against that person;
d.                  to be brought before a court as soon as reasonably possible, but not later than ­
                                                                                i.            48 hours after the arrest; or
                                                                              ii.            the end of the first court day after the expiry of the 48 hours, if the 48 hours expire outside ordinary court hours or on a day which is not an ordinary court day;
e.                   at the first court appearance after being arrested, to be charged or to be informed of the reason for the detention to continue, or to be released; and
f.                   to be released from detention if the interests of justice permit, subject to reasonable conditions.
2.                  Everyone who is detained, including every sentenced prisoner, has the right ­
a.                   to be informed promptly of the reason for being detained;
b.                  to choose, and to consult with, a legal practitioner, and to be informed of this right promptly;
c.                   to have a legal practitioner assigned to the detained person by the state and at state expense, if substantial injustice would otherwise result, and to be informed of this right promptly;
d.                  to challenge the lawfulness of the detention in person before a court and, if the detention is unlawful, to be released;
e.                   to conditions of detention that are consistent with human dignity, including at least exercise and the provision, at state expense, of adequate accommodation, nutrition, reading material and medical treatment; and
f.                   to communicate with, and be visited by, that person’s ­
                                                                                i.            spouse or partner;
                                                                              ii.            next of kin;
                                                                            iii.            chosen religious counselor; and
                                                                            iv.            chosen medical practitioner.
3.                  Every accused person has a right to a fair trial, which includes the right ­
a.                   to be informed of the charge with sufficient detail to answer it;
b.                  to have adequate time and facilities to prepare a defense;
c.                   to a public trial before an ordinary court;
d.                  to have their trial begin and conclude without unreasonable delay;
e.                   to be present when being tried;
f.                   to choose, and be represented by, a legal practitioner, and to be informed of this right promptly;
g.                  to have a legal practitioner assigned to the accused person by the state, if substantial injustice would otherwise result, and to be informed of this right promptly;
h.                  to be presumed innocent, to remain silent, and not to testify during the proceedings;
i.                    to adduce and challenge evidence;
j.                    not to be compelled to give self-incriminating evidence;
k.                  to be tried in a language that the accused person understands or, if that is not practicable, to have the proceedings interpreted in that language;
l.                    not to be convicted for an act or omission that was not an offence under either national or international law at the time it was committed or omitted;
m.                not to be tried for an offence in respect of an act or omission for which that person has previously been either acquitted or convicted;
n.                  to the benefit of the least severe of the prescribed punishments if the prescribed punishment for the offence has been changed between the time that the offence was committed and the time of sentencing; and
o.                  of appeal to, or review by, a higher court.
4.                  Whenever this section requires information to be given to a person, that information must be given in a language that the person understands.
5.                  Evidence obtained in a manner that violates any right in the Bill of Rights must be excluded if the admission of that evidence would render the trial unfair or otherwise be detrimental to the administration of justice.
XXXI. States of emergency
1.                  A state of emergency may be declared only in terms of an Act of Congress, and only when ­
a.                   the life of the nation is threatened by war, invasion, general insurrection, disorder, natural disaster or other public emergency; and
b.                  the declaration is necessary to restore peace and order.
2.                  A declaration of a state of emergency, and any legislation enacted or other action taken in consequence of that declaration, may be effective only ­
a.                   prospectively; and
b.                  for no more than 21 days from the date of the declaration, unless the Federation Assembly resolves to extend the declaration. The Assembly may extend a declaration of a state of emergency for no more than three months at a time. The first extension of the state of emergency must be by a resolution adopted with a supporting vote of a majority of the members of the Assembly. Any subsequent extension must be by a resolution adopted with a supporting vote of at least 60 per cent of the members of the Assembly. A resolution in terms of this paragraph may be adopted only following a public debate in the Assembly.
3.                  Any competent court may decide on the validity of ­
a.                   a declaration of a state of emergency;
b.                  any extension of a declaration of a state of emergency; or
c.                   any legislation enacted, or other action taken, in consequence of a declaration of a state of emergency.
4.                  Any legislation enacted in consequence of a declaration of a state of emergency may derogate from the Bill of Rights only to the extent that ­
a.                   the derogation is strictly required by the emergency; and
b.                  the legislation ­
                                                                                i.            is consistent with the Federations’s obligations under interstellar law applicable to states of emergency;
                                                                              ii.            conforms to subsection (5); and
                                                                            iii.            is published in the Federation Government Gazette as soon as reasonably possible after being enacted.
5.                  No Act of Congress that authorizes a declaration of a state of emergency, and no legislation enacted or other action taken in consequence of a declaration, may permit or authorize ­
a.                   indemnifying the state, or any person, in respect of any unlawful act;
b.                  any derogation from this section; or
c.                   any derogation from a section mentioned in column 1 of the Table of Non-Derogable Rights, to the extent indicated opposite that section in column 3 of the Table.
Table of Non-Derogable Rights
1.      Article and Section Number
2.      Section Title
3.      Extent to which the right is protected
III, 3
Equality
With respect to unfair discrimination solely on the grounds of race, gender, sex, gestation, union or marital status, familial or romantic or platonic or business relationship status, institutional bias, ethnic or social origin, color, sexual orientation or identity, personal preferences, lifestyle, age, ability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language, homeworld, species, background, and birth.
10
Human Dignity
Entirely
11
Life
Entirely
12
Freedom and Security of the person
[incomplete]
13
Unwilling slavery, servitude and forced labor
With respect to slavery and servitude, with the exception of certified Dominant / submissive relationships
28
Children
[incomplete]
35
Arrested, detained and accused persons
[incomplete]
6.                  Whenever anyone is detained without trial in consequence of a derogation of rights resulting from a declaration of a state of emergency, the following conditions must be observed:
a.                   An adult family member or friend of the detainee must be contacted as soon as reasonably possible, and informed that the person has been detained.
b.                  A notice must be published in the national Government Gazette within five days of the person being detained, stating the detainee’s name and place of detention and referring to the emergency measure in terms of which that person has been detained.
c.                   The detainee must be allowed to choose, and be visited at any reasonable time by, a medical practitioner.
d.                  The detainee must be allowed to choose, and be visited at any reasonable time by, a legal representative.
e.                   A court must review the detention as soon as reasonably possible, but no later than 10 days after the date the person was detained, and the court must release the detainee unless it is necessary to continue the detention to restore peace and order.
f.                   A detainee who is not released in terms of a review under paragraph (e), or who is not released in terms of a review under this paragraph, may apply to a court for a further review of the detention at any time after 10 days have passed since the previous review, and the court must release the detainee unless it is still necessary to continue the detention to restore peace and order.
g.                  The detainee must be allowed to appear in person before any court considering the detention, to be represented by a legal practitioner at those hearings, and to make representations against continued detention.
h.                  The state must present written reasons to the court to justify the continued detention of the detainee, and must give a copy of those reasons to the detainee at least two days before the court reviews the detention.
7.                  If a court releases a detainee, that person may not be detained again on the same grounds unless the state first shows a court good cause for re-detaining that person.
8.                  Subsections (6) and (7) do not apply to persons who are not Federation citizens and who are detained in consequence of an interstellar armed conflict. Instead, the state must comply with the standards binding on the Federation under interstellar sophant rights law in respect of the detention of such persons.
XXXII.                      Enforcement of rights
1.                  Anyone listed in this section has the right to approach a competent court, alleging that a right in the Bill of Rights has been infringed or threatened, and the court may grant appropriate relief, including a declaration of rights. The persons who may approach a court are -
a.                   anyone acting in their own interest;
b.                  anyone acting on behalf of another person who cannot act in their own name;
c.                   anyone acting as a member of, or in the interest of, a group or class of persons;
d.                  anyone acting in the public interest; and
e.                   an association acting in the interest of its members.
XXXIII.                   Interpretation of Bill of Rights
1.                  When interpreting the Bill of Rights, a court, tribunal or forum ­
a.                   must promote the values that underlie an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality and freedom;
b.                  must consider international law; and
c.                   may consider foreign law.
2.                  When interpreting any legislation, and when developing the common law or customary law, every court, tribunal or forum must promote the spirit, purport and objects of the Bill of Rights.
3.                  The Bill of Rights does not deny the existence of any other rights or freedoms that are recognized or conferred by common law, customary law or legislation, to the extent that they are consistent with the Bill.

1.                  See Sch 6 item 23 (1).
2.                  Sub-s. (1) deemed to read as set out in item 23 (2) (a) of Sch 6 until the legislation envisaged in sub-s. (2) is enacted. See Sch 6 item 23 (1) for enactment provisions and item 23 (3) for lapsing provisions.
3.                  Sub-ss. (1) and (2) deemed to read as set out in item 23 (2) (b) of Sch 6 until the legislation envisaged in sub-s. (3) is enacted. See Sch 6 item 23 (1) for enactment provisions and item 23 (3) for lapsing provisions.

Principles of Cooperative Government and Intergovernmental Relations
XXXIV.                   Government of the Federation
1.                  In the Federation, government is constituted as national, sector, member world, member world region, member world district and member world local spheres of government which are distinctive, interdependent and interrelated.
2.                  All spheres of government must observe and adhere to the principles in this Chapter and must conduct their activities within the parameters that the Chapter provides.
XXXV.                      Principles of cooperative government and intergovernmental relations
1.                  All spheres of government and all organs of state within each sphere must ­
a.                   preserve the peace, national unity and the indivisibility of the Federation;
b.                  secure the well-being of the people of the Federation;
c.                   provide effective, transparent, accountable and coherent government for the Federation as a whole;
d.                  be loyal to the Constitution, the Federation and its sophant beings;
e.                   respect the constitutional status, institutions, powers and functions of government in the other spheres;
f.                   not assume any power or function except those conferred on them in terms of the Constitution;
g.                  exercise their powers and perform their functions in a manner that does not encroach on the geographical, functional or institutional integrity of government in another sphere; and
h.                  cooperate with one another in mutual trust and good faith by ­
                                                                                i.            fostering friendly relations;
                                                                              ii.            assisting and supporting one another;
                                                                            iii.            informing one another of, and consulting one another on, matters of common interest;
                                                                            iv.            coordinating their actions and legislation with one another;
                                                                              v.            adhering to agreed procedures; and
                                                                            vi.            avoiding legal proceedings against one another. 
2.                  An Act of Congress must ­
a.                   establish or provide for structures and institutions to promote and facilitate intergovernmental relations; and
b.                  provide for appropriate mechanisms and procedures to facilitate settlement of intergovernmental disputes.
3.                  An organ of state involved in an intergovernmental dispute must make every reasonable effort to settle the dispute by means of mechanisms and procedures provided for that purpose, and must exhaust all other remedies before it approaches a court to resolve the dispute. 
4.                  If a court is not satisfied that the requirements of subsection (3) have been met, it may refer a dispute back to the organs of state involved.
XXXVI.                   Legislative: Congress of the Federation
The legislative branch of the United Federation of Planets is comprised of two chambers of Congress: the Federation Council and the Federation Assembly. Legislation must pass both houses before it is presented to the President to be signed into law.
D.                Council of the Federation
11.              Sittings of the Federation Council shall be public;
12.              Presiding officer is President Councilor, elected by simple majority of Councilors at beginning of each session;
13.              Assisting President Councilor are the First, Second, and Third Vice-President Councilors, elected by simple majority of Councilors at beginning of each session;
14.              The President and Vice-President Councilors shall form the Presidium of the Federation Council, and shall meet as a group at least once a week during sessions;
15.              The Federation Council shall be comprised of one Councilor from each sector;
16.              Eligibility Requirements:
d.                  Must have been citizen of UFP or area currently under UFP jurisdiction for at least 10 standard years or local equivalent
e.                   Must have been resident of sector to be represented for at least 6 standard years or local equivalent
f.                   Must have lived for at least 25 standard years or local equivalent
17.              Councilors shall be directly elected by citizens of UFP who have been residents of the sector to be represented for at least one standard year;
18.              Councilors serve six-year terms, with no limit on the number of terms they may serve;
19.              For election purposes, Councilors are divided into two classes; one class stands for election every three years. This ensures that there are always experienced legislators serving in Congress;
20.              Vacancies in the Council are filled by appointment by the vote of simple majority of members of the Assembly of the Federation from UFP member worlds within the sector where vacancy exists;
E.                 Assembly of the Federation
10.              Sittings of the Federation Assembly shall be public;
11.              Presiding officer is President Delegate, elected by simple majority of Delegates at beginning of each session
12.              Assisting President Delegate are the First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth  Vice-President Delegates, elected by simple majority of Delegates at beginning of each session
13.              The President and Vice-President Delegates shall form the Presidium of the Federation Assembly, and shall meet as a group at least once a week during sessions.
14.              The Federation Assembly shall be comprised of one Delegate from each member world.
15.              Eligibility Requirements:
d.                  Must have been citizen of UFP or area currently under UFP jurisdiction for at least for at least 5 standard years or local equivalent
e.                   Must have been resident of member world for at least 3 standard years or local equivalent
f.                   Must have lived for at least 20 standard years or local equivalent
16.              Direct Election by citizens of UFP who are lawful residents of member world;
17.              Delegates serve three-year terms, with no limit on the number of terms they may serve;
18.              Vacancies in the Assembly are filled by appointment by chief executive of member world where vacancy exists with vote of ⅔ majority of members of each house of the legislature of same member world
F.                  Powers of Federation Congress:
2.                  Upon the request of the Federation President, the Federation Congress may declare war upon foreign powers, interests, and factions, and decisions of the Federation Congress on the matter in question are binding
XXXVII.                Composition of the Federation Congress
1.                  Congress consists of ­
a.                   the Federation Assembly; and
b.                  the Federation Council.
2.                  The Federation Assembly and the Federation Council participate in the legislative process in the manner set out in the Constitution.
3.                  The Federation Assembly is elected to represent the people and to ensure government by the people under the Constitution. It does this by choosing the President, by providing a national forum for public consideration of issues, by passing legislation and by scrutinizing and overseeing executive action.
4.                  The Federation Council represents the sectors to ensure that sector interests are taken into account in the national sphere of government. It does this mainly by participating in the national legislative process and by providing a national forum for public consideration of issues affecting the provinces.
5.                  The President may summon the Federation Congress to an extraordinary sitting at any time to conduct special business.
6.                  The seat of the Federation Congress is Paris, France, Earth (Terra), Sol System, but an Act of Parliament enacted in accordance with section 76(1) and (5) may determine that the seat of Parliament is elsewhere.
XXXVIII.             Legislative authority of the Federation
1.                  In the Federation, the legislative authority ­
a.                   of the national sphere of government is vested in the Federation Congress, as set out in section 44;
b.                  of the sector sphere of government is vested in the Sector Diets, as set out in section ;
c.                   of the member world sphere of government is vested in the Member World Parliaments, as set out in section ;
d.                  of the member world region sphere of government is vested in the member world Regional General Assemblies, as set out in section ;
e.                   of the member world district sphere of government is vested in the member world District Legislatures, as set out in section ;
f.                   of the member world local sphere of government is vested in the member world Municipal Councils, as set out in section ;

Congress of the Federation
XXXIX.                   Federation legislative authority
1.                  The national legislative authority as vested in Congress ­
a.                   confers on the Federation Assembly the power ­
                                                                                i.            to participate in amending the Constitution in accordance with section 74;
                                                                              ii.            to pass, in accordance with section 76, legislation with regard to any matter within a functional area listed in Schedule 4 and any other matter required by the Constitution to be passed in accordance with section 76; and
                                                                            iii.            to consider, in accordance with section 75, any other legislation passed by the Federation Council.
b.                  confers on the Federation Council the power ­
                                                                                i.            to amend the Constitution;
                                                                              ii.            to pass legislation with regard to any matter, including a matter within a functional area listed in Schedule 4, but excluding, subject to subsection (2), a matter within a functional area listed in Schedule 5; and
                                                                            iii.            to assign any of its legislative powers, except the power to amend the Constitution, to any legislative body in another sphere of government; and
2.                  Congress may intervene, by passing legislation in accordance with section 76(1), with regard to a matter falling within a functional area listed in Schedule 5, when it is necessary ­
a.                   to maintain national security;
b.                  to maintain economic unity;
c.                   to maintain essential national standards;
d.                  to establish minimum standards required for the rendering of services; or
e.                   to prevent unreasonable action taken by a province which is prejudicial to the interests of another province or to the country as a whole.
3.                  Legislation with regard to a matter that is reasonably necessary for, or incidental to, the effective exercise of a power concerning any matter listed in Schedule 4 is, for all purposes, legislation with regard to a matter listed in Schedule 4.
4.                  When exercising its legislative authority, Congress is bound only by the Constitution, and must act in accordance with, and within the limits of, the Constitution.
XL.           Joint rules and orders and joint committees
1.                  The Federation Assembly and the Federation Council must establish a joint rules committee to make rules and orders concerning the joint business of the Assembly and Council, including rules and orders ­
a.                   to determine procedures to facilitate the legislative process, including setting a time limit for completing any step in the process;
b.                  to establish joint committees composed of representatives from both the Assembly and the Council to consider and report on Bills envisaged in sections 74 and 75 that are referred to such a committee;
c.                   to establish a joint committee to review the Constitution at least annually; and
d.                  to regulate the business of ­
                                                                                i.            the joint rules committee;
                                                                              ii.            the Mediation Committee;
                                                                            iii.            the constitutional review committee; and
                                                                            iv.            any joint committees established in terms of paragraph (b).
2.                  Cabinet members, members of the Federation Assembly and delegates to the Federation Council have the same privileges and immunities before a joint committee of the Assembly and the Council as they have before the Assembly or the Council.

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